Modification of continental lithosphere by tectonic processes: A tomographic image of central North America

Frederiksen, A. W.; Bollmann, T.; Darbyshire, F. et van der Lee, S. (2013). « Modification of continental lithosphere by tectonic processes: A tomographic image of central North America ». Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 118(3), pp. 1051-1066.

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The assembly of Laurentia by Precambrian accretion is also believed to have formed the underlying lithosphere. Accretionary signatures are detectable by seismic observations but subject to modification by later processes, e.g., orogeny, rifting, and plumes. We examine the Archean Superior Province (SP) and environs using a set of teleseismic P wave arrivals from Canadian and American instruments. The resulting tomographic model has high resolution beneath the Dakotas and Minnesota, provides a first look at the lithosphere beneath Manitoba, and sharpens previously documented features in Ontario. From the model and previous anisotropy observations, we detect (i) a large high-velocity feature beneath the western SP, associated with elevated lithospheric anisotropy. The high-velocity feature does not match crustal boundaries; notably, its western edge lies approximately 200 km east of the contact with the Proterozoic Trans-Hudson Orogen (THO). (ii) A low-velocity channel-shaped feature strikes northwest through Minnesota and the Dakotas, associated with weakening anisotropy. (iii) High velocities southwest of (ii), beneath the Minnesota River Valley terrane (MRVT), associated with low anisotropy. We interpret (i) to be accretionary, and contemporaneous with Superior assembly; similar velocity but weaker anisotropy of the MRVT is consistent with vertical-tectonic mechanisms. The inboard location of the THO contact may indicate modification of the Superior root. The low-velocity channel has no obvious crustal expression but connects to an offset in the Proterozoic Mid-Continent Rift (MCR) and may be rift related. The MCR is not well imaged but will be examined via the temporary Superior Province Rifting EarthScope Experiment, in progress.

Type: Article de revue scientifique
Mots-clés ou Sujets: Tomography, lithosphere, Laurentia, Superior, rift
Unité d'appartenance: Centres institutionnels > Centre de recherche en géochimie et géodynamique (GEOTOP)
Faculté des sciences > Département des sciences de la Terre et de l'atmosphère
Déposé par: Fiona Ann Darbyshire
Date de dépôt: 22 avr. 2016 17:33
Dernière modification: 25 avr. 2016 15:50
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