On the Characteristics of and Processes Producing Winter Precipitation Types near 0°C

Stewart, Ronald E.; Thériault, Julie M. et Henson, William (2015). « On the Characteristics of and Processes Producing Winter Precipitation Types near 0°C ». Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 96(4), pp. 623-639.

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This article examines the types of winter precipitation that occur near 0°C, specifically rain, freezing rain, freezing drizzle, ice pellets, snow pellets, and wet snow. It follows from a call by M. Ralph et al. for more attention to be paid to this precipitation since it represents one of the most serious wintertime quantitative precipitation forecasting (QPF) issues. The formation of the many precipitation types involves ice-phase and/or liquid-phase processes, and thresholds in the degree of melting and/or freezing often dictate the types occurring at the surface. Some types can occur simultaneously so that, for example, ensuing collisions between supercooled raindrops and ice pellets that form ice pellet aggregates can lead to substantial reductions in the occurrence of freezing rain at the surface, and ice crystal multiplication processes can lead to locally produced ice crystals in the subfreezing layer below inversions. Highly variable fall velocities within the background temperature and wind fields of precipitation-type transition regions lead to varying particle trajectories and significant alterations in the distribution of precipitation amount and type at the surface. Physically based predictions that account for at least some of the phase changes and particle interactions are now in operation. Outstanding issues to be addressed include the impacts of accretion on precipitation-type formation, quantification of melting and freezing rates of the highly variable precipitation, the consequences of collisions between the various types, and the onset of ice nucleation and its effects. The precipitation physics perspective of this article furthermore needs to be integrated into a comprehensive understanding involving the surrounding and interacting environment.

Type: Article de revue scientifique
Mots-clés ou Sujets: Winter precipitation types, Particle characteristics, Formation mechanisms, Freezing rain, Ice pellets
Unité d'appartenance: Faculté des sciences > Département des sciences de la Terre et de l'atmosphère
Déposé par: Julie Mireille Thériault
Date de dépôt: 21 mars 2016 14:31
Dernière modification: 19 avr. 2016 18:03
Adresse URL : http://archipel.uqam.ca/id/eprint/7953


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