The Collection Efficiency of Shielded and Unshielded Precipitation Gauges. Part I: CFD Airflow Modeling

Colli, Matteo; Lanza, Luca G.; Rasmussen, Roy et Thériault, Julie M. (2016). « The Collection Efficiency of Shielded and Unshielded Precipitation Gauges. Part I: CFD Airflow Modeling ». Journal of Hydrometeorology, 17(1), pp. 231-243.

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The aerodynamic response of snow gauges when exposed to the wind is responsible for a significant reduction of their collection performance. The modifications induced by the gauge and the windshield onto the space–time patterns of the undisturbed airflow deviate the snowflake trajectories. In Part I, the disturbed air velocity field in the vicinity of shielded and unshielded gauge configurations is investigated. In Part II, the airflow is the basis for a particle tracking model of snowflake trajectories to estimate the collection efficiency. A Geonor T-200B gauge inside a single Alter shield is simulated for wind speeds varying from 1 to 8 m s−1. Both time-averaged and time-dependent computational fluid dynamics simulations are performed, based on Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) and large-eddy simulation (LES) models, respectively. A shear stress tensor k–Ω model (where k is the turbulent kinetic energy and Ω is the turbulent specific dissipation rate) is used for the RANS formulation and solved within a finite-volume method. The LES is implemented with a Smagorinsky subgrid-scale method that models the subgrid stresses as a gradient-diffusion process. The RANS simulations confirm the attenuation of the airflow velocity above the gauge when using a single Alter shield, but the generated turbulence above the orifice rim is underestimated. The intensity and spatial extension of the LES-resolved turbulent region show a dependency on the wind speed that was not detected by the RANS. The time-dependent analysis showed the propagation of turbulent structures and the impact on the turbulent kinetic energy above the gauge collecting section.

Type: Article de revue scientifique
Mots-clés ou Sujets: Atm/Ocean Structure/Phenomena, Precipitation, Rainfall, Snowfall, Physical Meteorology and Climatology, Mixed precipitation, Observational techniques and algorithms, Instrumentation/sensors, Models and modeling, Numerical analysis/modeling
Unité d'appartenance: Faculté des sciences > Département des sciences de la Terre et de l'atmosphère
Déposé par: Julie Mireille Thériault
Date de dépôt: 21 mars 2016 14:33
Dernière modification: 01 sept. 2016 04:10
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